To know the properties of an element on the periodic table, you need to know the number of protons and electrons in that element. The number of protons and electrons can be easily determined from the periodic table, but not the number of neutrons.
You need to do a little math to figure out the number of neutrons. This article has discussed in detail how to easily find the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in a zinc atom.
Also discussed are the position of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom and the number of atomic masses. Hopefully, after reading this article, you will know the details on this topic.
Where are the electrons, protons and neutrons located in an atom?
An atom is the smallest particle of an element that does not have an independent existence, but is directly involved in chemical reactions as the smallest unit. Atoms are particles so small that they cannot be seen even under a powerful microscope.
The diameter of onehydrogen atomis 0.1 nm. (1.0 nm = 10-9m) So if 1000 million hydrogen atoms are placed next to each other, it is 1 meter long.
However, it was possible to see atoms by magnifying the field of view of a very powerful electron microscope by two million times. There are numerous permanent and temporary particles in the atom.
Electrons, protons and neutrons are permanent particles in the atom. Neutrino, antineutrino, positron and mason are also temporary particles in an atom.
Atoms can usually be divided into two parts. One is the core and the other is the orbit. Experiments by various scientists have shown that the nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons.
The only exception ishydrogen, which has only protons but no neutrons in its nucleus. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in a specific orbit.
How to easily find the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom?
The scientist Henry Gwynn Jefferies Mosle studied the X-ray spectrum of various elements from 1913 to 1914. The results of his experiments show that each element has a unique integer corresponding to the number of positive charges in the nucleus of that element.
He called this number the order of atoms. Therefore, the number of positive charges present in the nucleus of an element is called the atomic number of that element. The atomic number of the element is expressed by "Z".
This number is equal to the serial number of the periodic table. We know that protons are a positive charge in the nucleus of an atom.
That is, the atomic number is the total number of protons. The atom is globally charge neutral. Therefore, the number of negatively charged electrons orbiting in its orbit is equal to the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus.
Atomic number (Z) = number of non-nuclear charges (p)
How do you find the number of protons in an element?
Protons are the permanent particles in the nucleus of an atom. It is located in the center or nucleus of the atom. Ifa hydrogen atomWhen an electron is removed from its orbit, the remaining positively charged particle is called a proton. Therefore, the proton is expressed by H+.
The relative mass of protons is 1, which is approximately the mass of hydrogen (1.00757 AMU). However, the actual mass of the proton is 1.6726 × 10−27kg. That is, the mass of a proton is approximately 1837 times greater than the mass of an electron.
The proton is a positively charged particle. Its actual charge is +1.602×10−19coulomb. The diameter of a proton particle is about 2.4 × 10−13cm.
For example, we know that there are 118 elements in the periodic table and this is the 7th of those elementsof nitrogen. Elements in the periodic table are arranged according to their atomic number. Since nitrogen is the 7th element on the periodic table, theatomic number of nitrogenit is 7
You must always remember that the atomic number and the number of protons of an element are the same. Therefore, a nitrogen atom contains seven protons. In the same way, the number of protons of each element in the periodic table is determined.
How do you find the number of electrons in an element?
Electrons are the permanent particles in the nucleus of an atom. It is in a specific orbit of the atom and revolves around the nucleus. The properties of the elements and their compounds dependelectronic configuration.
In 1897, scientist J.J. Thomson discovered the existence of electrons by studying cathode rays. The smallest of the permanent particles in the nucleus is the electron. Its mass is about 1/1836 that of a hydrogen atom.
The actual mass of the electron is 9.1085 × 10−28g or 9.1093 × 10−31kg. The electron mass is often neglected because this mass is so small. Electrons always provide a negative charge.
is expressed by and–. The charge on the electrons is -1.609 × 10–19Coulomb and the relative charge is -1. That is, the charge on an electron is the same as that on a proton, but in reverse. You must also remember that the number of protons and electrons in an element is the same.
We know that, for exampleChlorIt is the 17th element on the periodic table. So we can say that the chlorine atom has seventeen protons. Therefore we can also say that aChloratomhas seventeen electrons. In the same way, the number of protons of each element in the periodic table is determined.
How do you find the number of neutrons in an element?
Scientist Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932. It is in the nucleus, at the center of the atom. The neutron is a charge-neutral particle and is expressed by n.
The charge of a neutron is zero and the relative charge is also zero. The mass of the neutron is 1.674 × 10−27kg. The number of electrons and protons in an atom is the same, but the number of neutrons is different.
We already know that the nucleus is at the center of the atom. There are two types of particles in the nucleus. One is a positively charged particle proton and the other is a neutrally charged particle neutron.
Almost all of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus. Therefore, the mass of the nucleus is called the atomic mass. The atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. Therefore, atomic mass refers to the total mass of protons and neutrons.
Atomic mass (A) = mass of nucleus = total mass of protons and neutrons (p + n)
Again, the mass of each proton and neutron is about 1 amu. Therefore, the total number of protons and neutrons is called the atomic mass number. That is, the atomic mass number (A) is = p + n
The number of neutrons in an element is the difference between the number of atomic masses and the number of atoms. That is, number of neutrons (n) = atomic mass number (A) – atomic number (Z)
We know that, for examplecarbonIt is the 6th element on the periodic table. Then thecarbon atomic numberis 6 and the atomic mass number is 12. Neutron = 12 – 6 = 6.
|mass number (A)||atomic number (Z)||Number of Neutrons = A – Z|
Hence acarbon atomhas six neutrons. Based on the atomic number, mass number and neutron number of the element, three things come into consideration. These are isotopes, isobars and isotones. The number of neutrons depends on the isotope of the atom.
How do you find protons, neutrons and electrons in an ion?
When an atom carries a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, it is called an ion. The ionic properties of elements depend on the exchange of electrons.
In an atomic ion, only the number of electrons changes, but not the number of protons and neutrons. Molecules that form bonds by donating electrons to other molecules are called cations.
When determining the ion electrons of these elements, the electron given off must be subtracted from the previous electron. For example,Aluminiumit only has three electrons in its final orbit.
During bond formation, aluminum donates three outer shell electrons to form bonds and turns into an aluminum ion (Al3+). In this case, the aluminum atom carries a positive charge.
Here thiselectronic configuration of aluminum ions(Al3+) is 1s22s22p6. This positive aluminum ion (Al3+) has ten electrons.
On the other hand, elements that accept electrons from other elements to form bonds are called anions. To determine the electrons in the ion of these elements, the previous electron must be added to the accepted electron.
For example,oxygenhas six electrons on its final orbit. The last shell of an oxygen atom gains two electrons and becomes an oxide ion (O2–). In this case, the oxygen atom carries a negative charge.
O + 2e–→ O2–
Here thiselectronic configuration of the oxide ion(Ö2–) is 1s22s22p6. This negative oxide ion (O2–) has ten electrons. Likewise, the number of electrons in the ion of each element is determined.
What are the properties of protons, neutrons and electrons?
|Name||Symbol||Relative Masse (amu)||relative load||Actual mass (kg)||Actual Load (C)||Location|
|Proton||P||1,00757||+1||1.672 × 10−27||1.602 × 10−19||inside the core|
|Neutron||N||1,0089||0||1.674 × 10−27||0||inside the core|
|Electronic||e–||5.488 × 10−4||–1||9.109 × 10−31||–1,6 × 10–19||from the core|
Why is it important to know the number of electrons and protons?
An atomic number is a number that carries the properties of an element. The number of electrons and protons in an element is determined by its atomic number. In addition, the exact position of an element in the periodic table is determined.
The properties of an element can be determined by its electronic configuration. In addition, the valuevalence electrons, and the ionic properties of elements are determined by their electron configuration.
In order to determine the properties of an element, it is necessary to arrange the electrons of that element. And to arrange the electrons, you need to know the number of electrons in that element.
To know the number of electrons, you need to know the atomic number of that element. We know that in the nucleus of the element there is an equal number of protons with the atomic number, and electrons corresponding to protons are in an orbit outside the nucleus.
Atomic number (Z) = number of electrons
We know that the atomic number ofPhosphoris 15. That means there are fifteen electrons in the atom of the element phosphorus. Thus, it is possible to determine the properties of phosphorus from the electron configuration. Now theelectronic configuration of phosphorusshows that the last orbit has five electrons.
therefore, thevalence electrons of phosphorusit is five The last shell of phosphorus has three unpaired electrons, so the valence of phosphorus is 3.
The last phosphorus electron enters the p orbital. Hence it is a p-block element. To know these properties of phosphorus, you need to know the number of electrons and protons in phosphorus.